National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had been experienced where 2 teams were tied for first. The league rapidly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring lucrative television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 video games as the house team while half the teams have just eight house video games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competitors of having more home games, the additional house video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a more two wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, negotiating television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such earnings similarly among teams, despite performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in breach of the common corporate structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not dominate the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the biggest expense item, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held at least once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on most weeks also.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later on due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.