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National Football League

Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:

No. of groups 32

Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site

consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.

eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the individual video games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Establishing and history

On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.

Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).

The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.

Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.

The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.

At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been used considering that the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had been experienced where 2 groups were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champions.

1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.

A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining financially rewarding television contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.

The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.

These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance gamer safety.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff advancement

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 video games as the home group while half the groups have just eight house video games. To minimize the perceived benefit on competitors of having more house games, the additional house game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same number of home video games.

The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.

Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to 10, and a more two wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.

The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Corporate structure

Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.

Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..

On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.

The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.

The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship prize.

The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, working out television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.

The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.

In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.

The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Financial resources

NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such earnings similarly among groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

Most NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.

The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.

The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.

, two other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.

According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not control the league through extreme revenues.

Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest cost item, player incomes, is capped.

Regular season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening game of the season is generally a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.

A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on a lot of weeks too.

NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.

In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.

Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not identified up until much later on because the league has to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.

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