National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific games accounting for a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized given that the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had been encountered where 2 groups were connected for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The groups were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining financially rewarding tv agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of four expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine video games as the home group while half the groups have just eight house video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the additional house game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and a more two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such revenue equally among teams, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in contravention of the common business structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the biggest cost product, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games taking place on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later because the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.