National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting events in the world, with the individual games accounting for a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been used because the league's production in 1920, however no circumstance had been experienced where 2 groups were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The groups were initially scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring profitable tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 video games as the house team while half the groups have just 8 home video games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competition of having more home video games, the extra house game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and a more 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or committed conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such profits equally among teams, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in conflict of the common business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the biggest expense item, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
A lot of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks as well.
NFL video games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.