National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the specific video games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, however no situation had been come across where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring financially rewarding tv agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on minimizing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine video games as the house team while half the teams have only eight home video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competition of having more house video games, the additional home video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and a further 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or individual..
On the other hand, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such profits equally amongst groups, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in breach of the typical business structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not dominate the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the biggest cost product, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
The majority of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games happening on the majority of weeks also.
NFL games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out up until much later since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.