National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champion between the best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the specific games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been utilized since the league's production in 1920, but no circumstance had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of four growth teams, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on minimizing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine video games as the home team while half the groups have only 8 house video games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competition of having more home video games, the additional home video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of just night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to 10, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such income equally amongst teams, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design is in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the largest expense item, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks too.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out till much later on because the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.