National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting events on the planet, with the specific video games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, but no situation had been come across where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting profitable television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the groups nine games as the house team while half the teams have just 8 home games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competition of having more house games, the extra home game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The four division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and an additional two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic responsibilities, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions approximately and including a lifetime ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such income equally among teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in conflict of the normal corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not dominate the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest expense item, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held at least once a week and Thursday night games occurring on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out up until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.