National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been come across where 2 teams were tied for first. The league rapidly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The groups were originally arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining financially rewarding tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion groups, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 games as the house group while half the teams have only 8 home games. To minimize the viewed advantage on competition of having more home games, the extra house game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league laws or dedicated conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions approximately and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has bet on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such earnings similarly among groups, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in contravention of the normal business structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not dominate the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a group playing severely and the biggest expense product, gamer incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
The majority of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not identified up until much later due to the fact that the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.