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National Football League

Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:

No. of teams 32

Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:

Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site

including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football in the world.

eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champion between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.

Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.

The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the individual video games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.

The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.

Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Establishing and history

On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.

Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).

The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.

Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.

Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.

The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.

On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).

, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.

At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, however no scenario had actually been encountered where two teams were connected for first. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the department champs.

1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.

A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.

Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.

The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.

These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance player security.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Season and playoff development

From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 games as the home team while half the teams have just eight house games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of home games.

The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The four department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.

The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.

Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and a further two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.

The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

Corporate structure

Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.

Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..

On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they make a profit.

The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.

The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic duties, including granting the conference championship prize.

The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.

The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, working out television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league laws or committed conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.

The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.

In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.

The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.

Finances

NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such income similarly amongst groups, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.

Many NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.

The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.

The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.

, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.

According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not control the league through extreme revenues.

Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest cost item, gamer wages, is capped.

Routine season

AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).

Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:

The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.

The opening game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.

A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks too.

NFL video games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.

NFL video games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.

In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.

Although a group's house and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not figured out up until much later since the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could posture a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.

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