National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champ in between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting events worldwide, with the private games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been utilized given that the league's development in 1920, however no situation had actually been encountered where two groups were connected for initially. The league quickly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining profitable tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 video games as the home group while half the groups have just 8 house games. To decrease the perceived advantage on competition of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such profits equally among teams, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in conflict of the normal business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest expense product, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games happening on the majority of weeks too.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes first in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not identified until much later on since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.