National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champion between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the private video games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been utilized considering that the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been experienced where two teams were connected for first. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The groups were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting rewarding television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of four expansion teams, in addition to the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine games as the house group while half the teams have only eight house video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and an additional two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial duties, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league employees, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or committed conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and including a life time restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such income similarly amongst teams, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in breach of the common business structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that one group will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the biggest cost product, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least when a week and Thursday night games taking place on the majority of weeks too.
NFL video games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical challengers or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later on since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.