National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champ between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the individual games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been utilized given that the league's development in 1920, but no situation had actually been experienced where two teams were connected for first. The league rapidly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting rewarding television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine games as the house team while half the teams have just eight home video games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house games, the extra home video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to 10, and a more 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income created through television rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or dedicated conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and including a life time restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such earnings equally amongst teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person team will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest expense item, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks as well.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not determined until much later due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.