National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the specific video games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been used given that the league's production in 1920, but no situation had actually been come across where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it however faced many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining profitable television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of four growth groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine games as the home team while half the teams have just eight house games. To minimize the perceived benefit on competitors of having more house video games, the additional house video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of simply night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to 10, and an additional 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, working out television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league laws or committed conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and including a lifetime ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has banked on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such profits equally among groups, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design remains in contravention of the normal business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person group will not control the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing severely and the largest expense product, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held at least once a week and Thursday night video games happening on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined until much later due to the fact that the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.