National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually remained as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the individual games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been used considering that the league's development in 1920, however no situation had been experienced where 2 teams were tied for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The groups were initially scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting profitable tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of four expansion teams, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on reducing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the teams nine games as the house group while half the groups have just 8 home video games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competition of having more house video games, the additional home video game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and an additional 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial duties, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such income similarly among teams, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in conflict of the typical business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one team will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the biggest cost item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on most weeks also.
NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later on because the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.