National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champ between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting events on the planet, with the private video games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been used since the league's creation in 1920, however no scenario had been encountered where 2 teams were tied for initially. The league quickly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The groups were originally arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding television agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the house group while half the teams have just eight house video games. To decrease the perceived benefit on competition of having more house video games, the additional home video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and a more 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings created through television rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial duties, consisting of granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also provide sanctions as much as and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually bet on games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such income similarly amongst teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design remains in breach of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest expense item, gamer incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least once a week and Thursday night games occurring on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later on because the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might position a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.