National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champion in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting events in the world, with the individual games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been used considering that the league's production in 1920, but no situation had actually been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring profitable television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television agreements and the addition of four growth groups, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine games as the house team while half the groups have just 8 home video games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more house games, the extra home game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a more two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal income tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or individual..
On the other hand, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ritualistic duties, consisting of granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or committed conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such income equally amongst teams, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in breach of the common corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person group will not control the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the biggest expense product, player salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least when a week and Thursday night games occurring on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out up until much later on due to the fact that the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.