National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had been encountered where two teams were connected for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring financially rewarding television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 expansion groups, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the house team while half the teams have only eight home video games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house video games, the additional home video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or individual..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through television rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ritualistic tasks, including awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league laws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions approximately and including a life time restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such income equally among groups, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design remains in contravention of the common corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the biggest cost item, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
The majority of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games taking place on many weeks also.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on since the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.