National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last video game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting events on the planet, with the private games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used considering that the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had actually been come across where two teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The teams were initially arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining rewarding tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine video games as the home team while half the groups have only 8 house video games. To reduce the viewed advantage on competition of having more home games, the additional house video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to 10, and a further two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or individual..
On the other hand, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in hiring league workers, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or devoted conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has banked on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such income equally among teams, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in breach of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person team will not control the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest cost product, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
A lot of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games occurring on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later on due to the fact that the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could posture a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.