National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the biggest club sporting events worldwide, with the private games representing a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the result of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been utilized because the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had been experienced where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The groups were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television agreements and the addition of four growth groups, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on lowering the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the teams 9 games as the home group while half the teams have only eight home video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more home video games, the extra home game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial duties, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such revenue equally among groups, regardless of efficiency. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design remains in conflict of the normal business structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the largest cost product, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games happening on most weeks too.
NFL video games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other 3 groups in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.