National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
including 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to figure out a champion between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the last game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting events in the world, with the private games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized because the league's development in 1920, but no situation had actually been experienced where two groups were connected for first. The league quickly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two departments with a championship game to be played between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting rewarding tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of four growth teams, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the house group while half the teams have only eight house video games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial duties, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league disperses such earnings equally among groups, despite performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in breach of the normal business structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest expense product, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Most NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held at least when a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not identified until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.