National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 teams from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to determine a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the specific video games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had actually been experienced where two teams were connected for initially. The league quickly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were originally scheduled to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring profitable tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on reducing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 games as the house team while half the groups have only 8 house video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competition of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The four department champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to 10, and a more two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or individual..
On the other hand, each specific team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic tasks, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league staff members, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has bet on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such earnings equally among groups, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in conflict of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that one team will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the largest expense product, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Many NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held at least when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on the majority of weeks also.
NFL games are not normally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group ends up initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later because the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.