National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (four department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual video games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been used because the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had actually been encountered where 2 teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, getting lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in tv contracts and the addition of four expansion teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained up until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine games as the home group while half the teams have only eight home video games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competition of having more home games, the additional home video game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and a more 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial duties, including awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also release sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such revenue similarly amongst teams, despite performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in conflict of the normal business structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest cost item, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Because 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on most weeks also.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later on due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.