National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting events on the planet, with the specific video games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized given that the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had been experienced where two teams were tied for first. The league quickly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The groups were originally set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of four expansion teams, as well as the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on minimizing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to lower concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 games as the home group while half the teams have only 8 house games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competition of having more house games, the extra house game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and a further two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights costs, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league workers, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed people of an NFL club if they have actually violated league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has banked on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such revenue similarly amongst groups, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model is in contravention of the normal business structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is making sure that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the biggest cost product, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks too.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined up until much later since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.