National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven teams from each conference (four department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champ between the best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the private video games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been utilized because the league's production in 1920, however no scenario had been come across where two teams were connected for initially. The league quickly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining rewarding tv agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 games as the home team while half the groups have just 8 home games. To decrease the perceived benefit on competition of having more house video games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in recent years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our business. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic tasks, including granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or devoted conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such income similarly among groups, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in conflict of the typical business structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the largest cost product, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games happening on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out up until much later on because the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.