National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champion in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting events in the world, with the specific video games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for players between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had been experienced where 2 groups were connected for first. The league quickly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it however faced numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting lucrative tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of four growth teams, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on decreasing the number of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine video games as the house team while half the teams have just 8 house games. To lessen the viewed benefit on competitors of having more house games, the extra house game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..
In contrast, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or committed conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such revenue similarly among teams, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in breach of the common business structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person group will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the largest cost product, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on most weeks as well.
NFL games are not generally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- two games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its division, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.