National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting events in the world, with the private games accounting for a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized considering that the league's production in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where 2 groups were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however faced numerous rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining financially rewarding television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the groups nine games as the home group while half the groups have just 8 home video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competitors of having more house video games, the additional house video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to ten, and a further 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
In contrast, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of income generated through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial responsibilities, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league workers, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or dedicated conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions approximately and including a life time ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually bet on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or repair games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such revenue equally amongst teams, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million every year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in contravention of the common business structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one team will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the largest expense product, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held at least once a week and Thursday night video games taking place on a lot of weeks too.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized three times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out up until much later because the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After coming to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.