National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champion in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the individual video games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been used considering that the league's production in 1920, but no circumstance had been experienced where two teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however faced many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least 3 different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting financially rewarding tv contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 expansion teams, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on reducing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have just 8 house games. To reduce the perceived advantage on competitors of having more home games, the additional house video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and a further two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each specific group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league staff members, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can also provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such earnings equally amongst groups, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model remains in contravention of the common corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is making sure that one team will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the biggest cost item, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a home game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used three times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not determined until much later on since the league has to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might position a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.