National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ in between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the biggest club sporting events on the planet, with the individual games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been used given that the league's development in 1920, but no scenario had actually been experienced where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league quickly determined that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially set up to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring lucrative tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to decrease concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 video games as the house team while half the teams have only 8 home games. To lessen the viewed advantage on competition of having more house video games, the additional home video game will be turned between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The four department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and a further 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through television rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our service. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ceremonial duties, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or devoted conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers required. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions up to and including a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has bet on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such income similarly among groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in conflict of the normal corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person group will not control the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the biggest cost product, player salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks also.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the department, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later due to the fact that the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.