National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities website
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to determine a champ in between the best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the individual games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, but no circumstance had been experienced where two groups were connected for initially. The league quickly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The groups were originally arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring rewarding television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of four growth teams, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on reducing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 video games as the house team while half the groups have only 8 house games. To reduce the perceived benefit on competition of having more house games, the additional house video game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same variety of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team divisions. The four department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and an additional two wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our company. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league employees, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or committed conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and including a lifetime ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such profits similarly amongst teams, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in contravention of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person team will not dominate the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing severely and the largest cost product, player salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is typically a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Many NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held at least once a week and Thursday night games taking place on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- two games (home and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up first in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not figured out up until much later because the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could posture a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.