National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the specific games accounting for much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the second game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been used considering that the league's development in 1920, but no situation had actually been come across where 2 teams were connected for first. The league quickly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining rewarding television contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth teams, as well as the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, generally through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the teams 9 games as the house group while half the teams have just eight home video games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the extra house video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to 10, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings created through tv rights costs, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material difference to our business. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic tasks, including granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, working out television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or committed conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has bet on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such income similarly amongst groups, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million annually from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in breach of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing badly and the largest expense item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on many weeks also.
NFL video games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to account for, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might posture a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.