National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champ in between the best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the most significant club sporting events in the world, with the specific video games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had actually been utilized given that the league's creation in 1920, however no situation had been come across where two groups were connected for initially. The league rapidly identified that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champion. The teams were initially scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues consisted of at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 version of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, gaining rewarding television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine video games as the home group while half the groups have just 8 home video games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competitors of having more house games, the extra house game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of house video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two groups connected for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff teams to 10, and a more two wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic duties, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, working out television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or committed conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such revenue similarly amongst groups, regardless of performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in breach of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is guaranteeing that a person team will not control the league through extreme earnings.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's most important structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the biggest expense item, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
A lot of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games taking place on a lot of weeks too.
NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL video games are not determined till much later because the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.