National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 major North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an arrangement to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champ between the best teams from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private video games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and 4 Super Bowls later on. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been used given that the league's development in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league quickly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring rewarding television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the number of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, generally through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later on reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will give half the teams 9 games as the house team while half the teams have just 8 house video games. To reduce the perceived benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and a further two wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal income tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net profits of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, consisting of granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league staff members, negotiating television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually breached league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration associated with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions up to and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such profits equally amongst groups, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue design remains in breach of the normal corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one team will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the largest cost item, gamer incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Most NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night video games happening on a lot of weeks too.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined until much later because the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.