National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
including 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champion in between the best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the individual video games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Since the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used given that the league's creation in 1920, however no situation had been encountered where 2 teams were connected for first. The league quickly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The groups were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to divide into two departments with a championship game to be played in between the department champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it however dealt with many competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting lucrative tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million global audiences viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on lowering the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will give half the groups 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have just 8 home games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competition of having more home video games, the additional house video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 department champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and a more two wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings created through television rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league employees, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and consisting of a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such earnings equally among groups, despite performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design is in breach of the common business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the largest cost item, gamer wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held at least once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on the majority of weeks too.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common challengers or each other–-- two games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are known by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later since the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.