National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champion between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the most significant club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific video games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been used given that the league's production in 1920, however no situation had been encountered where 2 groups were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were originally arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 departments with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it however dealt with numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, as well as the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for teams to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 video games as the home group while half the groups have only 8 house games. To decrease the perceived benefit on competition of having more home games, the additional house video game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of home video games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of just evening out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 division champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, consisting of granting the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or committed conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions approximately and including a life time restriction from the league if a private linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix video games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such revenue equally amongst teams, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million each year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in breach of the typical business structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not dominate the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing terribly and the biggest cost item, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games happening on most weeks also.
NFL video games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games against common opponents or each other–-- two games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that completes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not figured out up until much later on since the league needs to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.