National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship up until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the very best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average presence (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual games representing much of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been used because the league's production in 1920, but no scenario had been come across where 2 groups were connected for initially. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two departments with a national championship to be played between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in popularity, acquiring lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large boosts in television contracts and the addition of four expansion teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the variety of illegal hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and enhance player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine games as the house group while half the groups have only 8 home games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competition of having more house games, the additional home video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three division champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and an additional 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the division structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..
In contrast, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings created through television rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league workers, working out tv agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers essential. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a private connected to the NFL has banked on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such earnings equally among groups, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in conflict of the common business structure. By redistributing revenues to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not dominate the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the largest expense item, player incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a house video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game generally held at least once a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks also.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical challengers or each other–-- 2 games (home and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that completes last would play two other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later since the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.