National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champ between the very best groups from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual video games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the outcome of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been utilized because the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had been encountered where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champ. The teams were originally arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced various rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in appeal, acquiring lucrative television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine games as the house team while half the teams have only eight home video games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competition of having more house games, the extra house game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of simply night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The four division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits instead of championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any personal investor or person..
In contrast, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights costs, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our service. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and primarily ritualistic responsibilities, including granting the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or devoted conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers necessary. The commissioner can also issue sanctions up to and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such revenue similarly amongst groups, despite efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in conflict of the normal business structure. By rearranging revenues to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll described the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the biggest expense item, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Since 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is typically a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games taking place on the majority of weeks also.
NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking positive for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 games (house and away) are bet the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group ends up first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not identified up until much later since the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.