National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided similarly in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champion between the best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual games representing a lot of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Because the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two teams played two times in a season, the result of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had actually been utilized considering that the league's development in 1920, however no situation had actually been experienced where 2 groups were tied for initially. The league quickly figured out that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially arranged to play the championship game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 divisions with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the established NFL in popularity, gaining rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. General yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the variety of illegal hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team start in, later reducing this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, mainly due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will give half the teams 9 video games as the house team while half the groups have just eight house games. To decrease the viewed benefit on competition of having more house games, the additional home video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same variety of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just evening out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or person..
On the other hand, each private team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our service. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to divulge the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, including awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league staff members, negotiating tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and including a lifetime restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair video games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such profits equally among groups, no matter efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million annually from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in conflict of the normal business structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the largest cost product, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night video games happening on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups usually play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team finishes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined up until much later on because the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that might present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.