National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four major North American professional sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champion between the best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private video games accounting for much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls later on. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to remove bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the result of the 2nd game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had actually been used because the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had been experienced where 2 teams were tied for initially. The league rapidly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The groups were originally scheduled to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring lucrative television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period likewise marked the development of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on reducing the number of illegal hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 games as the home team while half the teams have only eight home games. To minimize the perceived benefit on competitors of having more house video games, the additional home game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same number of home games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would satisfy in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and an additional 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding two more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code provides an exemption from federal income tax for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any personal shareholder or individual..
On the other hand, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a diversion, stating the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights fees, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer needed to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic duties, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league workers, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or dedicated conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a celebration connected with the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and including a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has banked on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league disperses such income similarly among groups, regardless of efficiency. As of February 2019 [update], each team receives $255 million annually from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in breach of the common business structure. By rearranging revenues to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the largest expense product, gamer incomes, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a house game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
The majority of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games happening on many weeks too.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday before the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against common challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out until much later due to the fact that the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.