National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to identify a champ between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions on the planet, with the specific video games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the standard of professional football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for players between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used because the league's production in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been experienced where 2 groups were connected for first. The league quickly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a similar restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an effective monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, acquiring lucrative tv contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a nationwide collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, as well as the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on minimizing the number of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is requiring to lower concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the house team while half the teams have only eight home video games. To minimize the perceived advantage on competition of having more house games, the additional home video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are designated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than championship game. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to 10, and an additional two wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code provides an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a diversion, saying the results of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As an outcome, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic duties, including granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating television agreements, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have breached league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the welfare of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party connected with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft choices.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems necessary. The commissioner can also issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a lifetime ban from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such earnings equally among teams, despite performance. Since February 2019 [update], each team gets $255 million every year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The staying one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one team will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the largest cost item, player incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Many NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night video games taking place on most weeks too.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids professional football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out up until much later on because the league needs to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to make sure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.