National Football League
Expert American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
including 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to figure out a champion between the very best teams from the 2 leagues and has remained as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the most significant club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private games representing much of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not maintain main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest winning percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had actually been utilized since the league's development in 1920, however no scenario had been encountered where 2 groups were connected for first. The league quickly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting profitable tv agreements and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL groups along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly attendance increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers viewed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, as well as the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept till switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of video games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the house team while half the teams have only 8 house video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competitors of having more house video games, the additional home video game will be turned in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with 3 departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a more two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any personal investor or person..
On the other hand, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic duties, consisting of granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league employees, working out tv contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league bylaws or devoted conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee as much as and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can also release sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time ban from the league if a private linked to the NFL has bet on games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such revenue equally among groups, despite performance. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million every year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of earnings originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model is in contravention of the common business structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one team will not control the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's crucial structural weak point, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the largest expense product, gamer salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champion.
Most NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games occurring on the majority of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players testing favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games against common opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are bet the other three groups in the department, while one video game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the team remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group finishes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final video game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional occasions that might present a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.