National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (4 division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially kept in 1967 to figure out a champ between the best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the private games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by earnings and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls afterwards. Since the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by agents of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play occurred.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played two times in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This technique had been utilized since the league's development in 1920, however no situation had been experienced where 2 groups were connected for first. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing caliber. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, gaining lucrative tv contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv agreements and the addition of four growth teams, along with the intro of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to lower concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept up until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 video games as the home team while half the groups have only 8 home games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champs from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff teams to ten, and an additional 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of income created through tv rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product distinction to our business. As an outcome, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and mostly ceremonial responsibilities, including granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, working out television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or devoted conduct harmful to the well-being of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions up to and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually banked on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such earnings equally among teams, despite performance. As of February 2019 [update], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL teams' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of revenue came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design remains in breach of the common business structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one team will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing severely and the biggest cost product, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a home game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Most NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game typically held at least once a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks also.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are hardly ever set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually just been utilized 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other three groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a division from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team ends up initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out till much later due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that might position a scheduling conflict with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more possible schedules were established to try to ensure that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.