National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official site
including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champion in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season given that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also among the greatest club sporting events in the world, with the individual video games representing a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Specialist Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to remove bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest gaining percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This method had been utilized given that the league's production in 1920, however no circumstance had been come across where 2 teams were tied for initially. The league quickly determined that a championship game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were initially scheduled to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and thus won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the biggest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included a minimum of 3 different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competition in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining rewarding television contracts and engaging in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the development of NFL Charities and a nationwide partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in television contracts and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on lowering the number of unlawful hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst many the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the teams 9 video games as the house group while half the groups have just eight house video games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competitors of having more house games, the additional house game will be rotated in between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the very same number of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and a further two wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 groups in, the league realigned, altering the division structure from 3 divisions in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code offers an exemption from federal income taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private shareholder or person..
In contrast, each individual team (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax because they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of earnings generated through tv rights charges, licensing contracts, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no product difference to our business. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic duties, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league workers, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have breached league laws or dedicated conduct destructive to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, by far a fine of up to US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or forfeit of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can likewise release sanctions approximately and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a private connected to the NFL has actually banked on video games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or repair games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such profits similarly among groups, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group receives $255 million annually from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL teams' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits rose from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs cost in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in conflict of the typical business structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is making sure that one group will not control the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll described the income sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the biggest expense product, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Considering that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champion.
The majority of NFL games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game normally held a minimum of once a week and Thursday night video games occurring on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays up until late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Since high school and college groups typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common challengers or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are bet the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team ends up first in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In total, each team plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL games are not determined up until much later due to the fact that the league needs to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that could posture a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were established to try to make sure that the selected schedule would be the very best possible one.