National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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including 32 groups, divided similarly between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship until 1966. Following a contract to combine the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to figure out a champion between the very best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting events worldwide, with the specific video games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most championship titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play happened.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been used because the league's production in 1920, however no circumstance had been encountered where 2 groups were tied for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to divide into 2 divisions with a championship game to be played in between the division champs.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the elimination of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the biggest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL teams trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the American Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams in addition to 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its growth is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual participation increased from 3 million at the start of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Way Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to succeed Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in tv agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, in addition to the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's present Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually focused on reducing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance gamer safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later on reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the variety of video games gone back to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the teams nine video games as the house group while half the teams have just 8 house games. To reduce the viewed benefit on competition of having more house games, the additional home game will be turned in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same number of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen teams. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and divide each into 2 four-team divisions. The 4 department champions would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the team with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and a further 2 wild card groups were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each individual group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, saying the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our organization. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and mainly ritualistic tasks, consisting of awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements in between clubs, players, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, negotiating tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have actually broken league laws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip teams of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also provide sanctions up to and consisting of a life time ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has banked on video games or failed to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league disperses such income similarly among teams, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each team gets $255 million each year from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income design is in conflict of the common corporate structure. By redistributing earnings to all groups the NFL is making sure that one group will not dominate the league through excessive profits.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the biggest expense item, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Since 2021, the season has actually begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
The majority of NFL video games are used Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games occurring on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law prohibits professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are hardly ever scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized three times since 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was postponed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 games versus common opponents or each other–-- two games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the department, while one game is held against all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as figured out by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that completes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a turning cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not figured out till much later because the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that could present a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more potential schedules were established to try to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.