National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football in the world.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is normally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champions through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to identify a champ in between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has remained as the final game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league on the planet and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual video games accounting for many of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl age and 4 Super Bowls afterwards. Because the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a group in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first full week of league play took place.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played twice in a season, the result of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This approach had been used because the league's production in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been encountered where two groups were connected for initially. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The teams were initially set up to play the championship game, officially a regular-season video game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a mix of heavy snow and severe cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with transformed rules to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into two divisions with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and accompanying the removal of a comparable restriction Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless dealt with many rival expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of various local leagues of differing quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially became the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American video game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the established NFL in appeal, getting rewarding television contracts and participating in a bidding war with the NFL free of charge representatives and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was rearranged into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv contracts and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the number of illegal hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among many the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group start in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it kept until switching to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after getting the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 games as the home group while half the teams have just 8 house games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competition of having more home video games, the extra home video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would satisfy in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Instead of just night out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team departments. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff groups to ten, and a further 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs expanded once again in 2020, including two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they earn a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly over the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through tv rights fees, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product distinction to our company. As a result, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, consisting of awarding the conference championship prize.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes in between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in working with league staff members, working out tv contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or dedicated conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a party related to the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can likewise issue sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if a specific linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or plans to bet on or fix games.
The existing Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television agreement. The league distributes such profits similarly amongst teams, no matter performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Most NFL groups' monetary statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star got the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for gamers, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the group.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits design remains in breach of the typical corporate structure. By rearranging profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that a person team will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing terribly and the biggest expense product, player salaries, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games against each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the team who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game regular season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home video game on a Thursday for the league's defending champ.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least once a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks too.
NFL games are not usually played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law prohibits expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Due to the fact that high school and college groups generally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days up until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a department, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- 2 video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, determined by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a group completes initially in its division, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified until much later on since the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Major League Baseball postseason and local occasions that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling group. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the selected schedule would be the best possible one.