National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Authorities site
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the highest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, seven groups from each conference (4 department winners and three wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is typically hung on the very first Sunday in February and is played between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New york city City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game until 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champion between the best teams from the two leagues and has stayed as the final video game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual games representing a lot of the most watched tv programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the requirement of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, however did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the group with the highest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the result of the second video game figured out the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been used because the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been come across where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league quickly identified that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The groups were originally arranged to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two divisions with a national championship to be played between the division champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of 3 separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of different regional leagues of differing quality. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A brand-new professional league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining rewarding tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and championship game. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL groups as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million worldwide viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars yearly; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the variety of minorities in league and group management functions.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on minimizing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, mainly through fining or suspending players who break rules.
These actions are among numerous the NFL is taking to decrease concussions and improve player security.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the variety of games gone back to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until switching to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the teams nine games as the house group while half the groups have just 8 home video games. To lessen the perceived benefit on competition of having more home video games, the additional home game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is because playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the exact same number of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL Championship Game. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Instead of simply evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team departments. The 4 division champions would meet in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibits rather than championship game. The league discontinued the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six teams, would also include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the 3 department champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the overall number of playoff groups to 10, and a more 2 wild card groups were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the division structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff quote, the variety of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to 2.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including two more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and funded by its 32 member groups.
Up up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Revenue Code provides an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for revenue and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each specific group (other than the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income created through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our business. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer needed to divulge the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has actually one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial duties, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, gamers, coaches, and employees. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league staff members, negotiating television contracts, disciplining individuals that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or used people of an NFL club if they have violated league laws or devoted conduct destructive to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he considers needed. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or repair video games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL revenue is from three main sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv contract. The league distributes such earnings similarly amongst groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television agreement. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in running income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's revenue model remains in conflict of the common business structure. By redistributing earnings to all teams the NFL is making sure that a person team will not dominate the league through excessive earnings.
Roger Noll explained the income sharing as the league's most important structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a team playing terribly and the largest cost item, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games versus each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each against the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game versus the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Given that 2021, the season has actually started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
Many NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game usually held a minimum of as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not generally played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the routine season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from competing with college or high school football. Because high school and college teams normally play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league hardly ever holds Friday games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been used 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all 4 groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- two video games (home and away) are played against the other three teams in the division, while one game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (three years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for instance, if a team completes first in its division, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based on a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the exact dates and times for NFL games are not determined till much later since the league has to represent, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.