National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
including 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season runs from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen video games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally hung on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) prior to renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was implemented in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an arrangement to merge the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was initially held in 1967 to identify a champ between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually stayed as the last game of each NFL season because the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private video games accounting for a number of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent professional sports league by revenue and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most champion titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile vehicle showroom in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers in between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first occasion happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the very first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the second game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This method had been used given that the league's development in 1920, but no circumstance had actually been experienced where two groups were tied for first. The league rapidly determined that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champ. The teams were initially set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played in between the department champs.
1934 season likewise marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless dealt with various rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included at least three separate American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying caliber. Three NFL groups trace their histories to these rival leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the 4th Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, getting financially rewarding television contracts and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full result in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was restructured into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total annual presence increased from 3 million at the beginning of his tenure to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million global viewers enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Way Paul Tagliabue was chosen as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in tv agreements and the addition of four expansion groups, in addition to the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has concentrated on decreasing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, mainly through fining or suspending players who break guidelines.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is requiring to minimize concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each group beginning in, later shortening this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to The second world war. After the war ended, the number of games returned to eleven video games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it retained until switching to the present sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially adopted a seventeen-game schedule after acquiring the arrangement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will offer half the groups nine games as the home team while half the teams have just eight house games. To lessen the viewed benefit on competition of having more home video games, the additional home video game will be rotated between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of home games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen groups to sixteen teams. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The 4 division champs would satisfy in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also ran the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of championship game. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its perception as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL split into 2 conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three department champs from each conference along with one 'wild card' group (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and a more two wild card groups were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league realigned, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the variety of wild card teams from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card teams to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up till 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Income Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or expert football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not organized for revenue and no part of the net profits of which inures to the benefit of any private shareholder or person..
In contrast, each private group (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax since they make a profit.
The NFL quit the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently in recent years ... Every dollar of income generated through tv rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our organization. As a result, the league office might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, but it is no longer required to disclose the incomes of its executive officers.
The league has actually three specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ritualistic tasks, including granting the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is higher) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, gamers, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in working with league employees, working out television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or employed individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league laws or devoted conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party connected with the league, suspend people, by far a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems needed. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and consisting of a life time ban from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has banked on games or stopped working to notify the league of conspiracies or strategies to bet on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league disperses such earnings similarly among groups, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million each year from the league's tv contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of revenue originated from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and miscellaneous sources.
The largest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of former team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economist Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model is in conflict of the common business structure. By rearranging earnings to all teams the NFL is guaranteeing that one group will not control the league through extreme revenues.
Roger Noll explained the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, however, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the biggest expense product, player wages, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games versus each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the team who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is generally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held at least once a week and Thursday night video games happening on most weeks also.
NFL games are not normally used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams typically play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom arranged for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to avoid dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as determined by a rotating cycle (3 years for the conference the group is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team finishes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place groups in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and figured out by previous season's standings.
In overall, each team plays 17 video games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not determined up until much later on because the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional events that might present a scheduling dispute with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 prospective schedules were created by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to guarantee that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.