National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competition or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Opportunity New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 groups, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is among the 4 significant North American professional sports leagues, the highest professional level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 groups from each conference (4 department winners and 3 wild card teams) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) before relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first determining champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game up until 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to determine a champion in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has actually remained as the final game of each NFL season since the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the private games accounting for a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest professional sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls later on. Considering that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have the most champion titles at six.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting led to the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to get rid of bidding for gamers between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Heralds signed up with the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a team in 1920. Only 2 of these groups, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that consisted of non-league challengers, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the group with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 groups played twice in a season, the outcome of the 2nd game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been utilized given that the league's production in 1920, but no situation had actually been come across where 2 teams were connected for initially. The league quickly identified that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion. The teams were originally set up to play the playoff game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold required the game to be moved inside to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the championship. Fan interest in the de facto national championship led the NFL, starting in, to split into 2 departments with a national championship to be played between the department champions.
1934 season likewise marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar restriction Big league Baseball The NFL was always the largest expert football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced various competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues consisted of at least three separate Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous regional leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competition in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which formally ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a niche market in Canada and still survives as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, acquiring rewarding television agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL for free representatives and draft picks. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The video game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into two conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the American Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with three pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall annual attendance increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences saw 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL established NFL Characteristics in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence earns the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to be successful Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big boosts in television agreements and the addition of 4 growth groups, along with the introduction of league efforts to increase the variety of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport safer, generally through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is requiring to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff development
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each team start in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL officially embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of video games in the schedule will provide half the groups nine games as the house team while half the teams have only 8 house games. To minimize the viewed benefit on competitors of having more home video games, the additional home game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is due to the fact that playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the same variety of house games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If 2 teams tied for the conference lead, they would satisfy in a one-game playoff to determine the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of just night out the conferences by adding the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The 4 department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL likewise operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Successfully a third-place game, pitting the two conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with three departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would also feature a broadened eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference along with one 'wild card' team (the group with the best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card team from each conference, bringing the total variety of playoff groups to ten, and a further 2 wild card teams were added in to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 teams in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 departments in each conference. As each division champ gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, adding two more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code supplies an exemption from federal earnings tax for Company leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
In contrast, each specific team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax due to the fact that they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a distraction, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized repeatedly recently ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other methods is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the change in filing status will make no product difference to our company. As a result, the league workplace might owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer needed to disclose the wages of its executive officers.
The league has 3 specified officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with couple of powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, consisting of awarding the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner designates the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, players, coaches, and workers. He is the principal executive officer of the NFL and also has authority in employing league workers, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or committed conduct harmful to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misbehavior by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can use recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions approximately and including a life time restriction from the league if an individual connected to the NFL has actually bet on games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL income is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such revenue equally among groups, no matter performance. Since February 2019 [update], each group receives $255 million each year from the league's tv agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
The majority of NFL groups' financial statements are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's income increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of earnings came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio agreement ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other staff members. Of the $38 million in operating income, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to financial expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's profits model remains in breach of the common corporate structure. By redistributing revenues to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through extreme incomes.
Roger Noll explained the revenue sharing as the league's essential structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the biggest expense product, gamer incomes, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Expenses Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in second location in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its division competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one game against the group who finished second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 opponents each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game regular season. Because 2021, the season has begun the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's safeguarding champ.
Most NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games taking place on the majority of weeks also.
NFL games are not usually used Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams normally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold video games on those days until the Friday prior to the 3rd Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most current one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL video games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been used three times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was delayed from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical challengers or each other–-- two games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the department, while one video game is held versus all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes initially in its department, it will play 2 other first-place teams in its conference, while a team that finishes last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The last game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's home and away opponents are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL games are not figured out until much later on since the league has to represent, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and regional occasions that could pose a scheduling dispute with NFL games. Throughout the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computer systems, 5,000 of which were considered playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After coming to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were established to attempt to ensure that the picked schedule would be the very best possible one.