National Football League
Expert Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of groups 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 major North American expert sports leagues, the greatest professional level of American football worldwide.
eighteen-week routine season ranges from early September to early January, with each team playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, 7 teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the first Sunday in February and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was carried out in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following a contract to merge the NFL with the competing Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first held in 1967 to determine a champion between the best groups from the 2 leagues and has actually stayed as the last video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average participation (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is also amongst the most significant club sporting events worldwide, with the private games representing a number of the most watched tv programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most seen U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most valuable teams.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles before the Super Bowl period and 4 Super Bowls later on. Considering that the production of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at six.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile automobile display room in Canton, Ohio This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, meant to raise the requirement of expert football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers in between rival clubs and to protect cooperation in the development of schedules.
Another conference was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Specialist Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and included fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares signed up with the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was also at the September 17 conference, however did not field a group in 1920. Just 2 of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first occasion took place on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play happened.
The following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for very first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining percentage (not including ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if 2 teams played twice in a season, the outcome of the second video game identified the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had been utilized since the league's creation in 1920, however no circumstance had been encountered where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a playoff game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was required to decide the league's champ. The teams were originally set up to play the championship game, formally a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold required the video game to be moved inside to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with altered guidelines to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and hence won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the elimination of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was always the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced many rival professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying caliber. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who came from a 1936 iteration of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which originated from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had an efficient monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the professional Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a different football code than the American video game, the CFL developed a specific niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A new professional league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL began to challenge the recognized NFL in appeal, getting profitable tv agreements and participating in a bidding war with the NFL totally free agents and draft choices. The two leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full effect in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and championship game. The game, the Super Bowl, was held 4 times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL groups.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its development is credited to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly presence increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international viewers watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Residence makes the league billions of dollars every year; Rozelle's period also marked the production of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year period, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of 4 expansion teams, along with the intro of league efforts to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on reducing the variety of prohibited hits and making the sport much safer, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst numerous the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and enhance player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of video games for groups to play, instead setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game regular season for each group start in, later shortening this to eleven video games in and 10 video games in, mainly due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of games gone back to eleven games in, and later on back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally embraced a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd number of games in the schedule will offer half the groups 9 games as the home group while half the teams have just eight home video games. To reduce the viewed advantage on competitors of having more house games, the additional home video game will be rotated in between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the exact same number of home video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champions of each conference would fulfill in the NFL National Championship. If 2 groups connected for the conference lead, they would fulfill in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champ. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of simply night out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and divide each into two four-team divisions. The 4 department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league ceased the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the previous AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL divided into 2 conferences with 3 divisions each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the three department champions from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league included a 2nd wild card team from each conference, bringing the total number of playoff groups to ten, and an additional two wild card teams were added in to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL broadened to 32 groups in, the league straightened, changing the department structure from three departments in each conference to 4 divisions in each conference. As each department champ gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from 3 to two.
The playoffs broadened once again in 2020, including 2 more wild card teams to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated not-for-profit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code offers an exemption from federal earnings taxation for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football players), not arranged for profit and no part of the net revenues of which inures to the advantage of any private investor or person..
On the other hand, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) undergoes tax because they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell labeled it a interruption, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league workplace have actually been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights fees, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is made by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will stay the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As an outcome, the league office may owe around US$ 10 million in income taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is essentially an honorary position with few powers and primarily ceremonial tasks, including awarding the championship game trophy.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner selects the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in conflicts between clubs, players, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in hiring league employees, working out tv agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or used individuals of an NFL club if they have broken league bylaws or devoted conduct damaging to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misconduct by a party associated with the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can offer recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems required. The commissioner can likewise provide sanctions as much as and including a life time ban from the league if a specific connected to the NFL has actually bet on video games or failed to inform the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the television contract. The league distributes such revenue equally among teams, no matter efficiency. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million annually from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
Many NFL groups' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star obtained the Kansas City Chiefs' income tax return for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the team's earnings increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, 2 thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv agreement. The staying one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other children, and widow of previous group owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's income model is in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing profits to all groups the NFL is ensuring that one group will not control the league through excessive revenues.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's essential structural weak point, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a team playing badly and the largest cost product, player wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) finished in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two video games against each of its division rivals (highlighted in light blue), one game against each team in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who completed second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each group faces over the 17-game routine season schedule are set using a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Given that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is normally a house game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champion.
Many NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game normally held at least as soon as a week and Thursday night games happening on a lot of weeks as well.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the routine season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college teams typically play games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season are common, the league rarely holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have only been utilized 3 times given that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent conflict with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to players checking favorable for COVID-19 NFL regular season matchups are determined according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical challengers or each other–-- 2 video games (home and away) are played against the other 3 teams in the division, while one video game is held against all the members of a department from the NFC and a department from the AFC as figured out by a rotating cycle (three years for the conference the team is in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). Two of the other games are intraconference video games, figured out by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group completes initially in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's routine season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later because the league has to account for, among other things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local occasions that could pose a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 potential schedules were developed by computer systems, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were reviewed by the NFL's scheduling team. After reaching what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more potential schedules were developed to try to ensure that the picked schedule would be the best possible one.