National Football League
Professional American football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Nation United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TELEVISION partner(s) United States:
Fox NBC ESPN NFL Network Telemundo Deportes Broadcasters Official website
consisting of 32 teams, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the 4 significant North American expert sports leagues, the greatest expert level of American football on the planet.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the routine season, seven teams from each conference (four division winners and 3 wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held on the first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Expert Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After at first identifying champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL National Championship till 1966. Following an agreement to combine the NFL with the competing American Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champion in between the very best groups from the two leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season given that the merger was completed in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the greatest average attendance (67,591) of any expert sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise amongst the biggest club sporting occasions worldwide, with the individual games representing many of the most watched television programs in American history and all occupying the Nielsen's Leading 5 tally of the all-time most enjoyed U.S. tv broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the wealthiest expert sports league by profits and the sports league with the most important groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL champions with thirteen, winning nine titles before the Super Bowl age and four Super Bowls later on. Given that the creation of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Founding and history
On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference led to the development of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, planned to raise the standard of expert football in every method possible, to eliminate bidding for gamers between competing clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another meeting was hung on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York City; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen teams (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league during the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Just two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), remain in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the first APFA (NFL) Champion in 1920.
Although the league did not keep main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that consisted of non-league opponents, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their The very first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents beat the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA altered its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) tied for first in the league standings.
At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest gaining portion (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was stated the champ; the only tiebreaker was that in the event of a tie if two groups played two times in a season, the result of the second video game determined the title (the source of the 1921 debate). This approach had actually been utilized because the league's development in 1920, but no situation had actually been encountered where 2 groups were connected for first. The league quickly figured out that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champ. The groups were originally arranged to play the championship game, formally a regular-season video game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, however a mix of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the video game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with transformed guidelines to accommodate the smaller sized playing field, the Bears won the game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into 2 departments with a championship game to be played between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the very first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were missing from the league. The de facto ban was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a comparable ban Big league Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nonetheless faced numerous competing expert leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Rival leagues included a minimum of three different American Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of differing caliber. 3 NFL teams trace their histories to these rival leagues, including the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 version of the Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last 2 of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on expert football in the United States; its only competitors in The United States and Canada was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL developed a niche market in Canada and still endures as an independent league.
A brand-new expert league, the fourth American Football League (AFL), began to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining lucrative television agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL totally free representatives and draft choices. The two leagues announced a merger on June 8, 1966, to take full impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a common draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times before the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league merged, it was rearranged into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), consisting of the majority of the pre-merger NFL teams, and the Football Conference (AFC), including all of the AFL teams along with 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in North America; much of its development is credited to previous Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Overall yearly participation increased from 3 million at the beginning of his period to 17 million by the end of his tenure, and 400 million international audiences enjoyed 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Properties in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Characteristic earns the league billions of dollars each year; Rozelle's period also marked the creation of NFL Charities and a national partnership with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by large increases in television agreements and the addition of four growth groups, in addition to the introduction of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and team management roles.
The league's existing Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has actually concentrated on minimizing the number of prohibited hits and making the sport more secure, primarily through fining or suspending gamers who break rules.
These actions are among lots of the NFL is taking to reduce concussions and improve player safety.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set number of games for groups to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later on shortening this to eleven games in and 10 games in, generally due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained up until changing to the existing sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after gaining the agreement of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will give half the teams nine games as the home team while half the teams have only eight house video games. To lessen the perceived advantage on competitors of having more home games, the extra house game will be turned between the two conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are allocated at the conference level, so all teams within the conference will have played the same variety of house video games.
The NFL operated in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two teams tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to figure out the conference champion. In, the NFL broadened from fifteen groups to sixteen groups. Instead of just evening out the conferences by adding the growth New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL realigned the conferences and split each into 2 four-team departments. The four department champs would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (officially the Bert Bell Advantage Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Efficiently a third-place video game, pitting the two conference runners-up versus each other, the league considers Playoff Bowls to have actually been exhibitions instead of playoff games. The league stopped the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL teams into the NFL in, the NFL divided into two conferences with 3 departments each. The broadened league, now with twenty-six teams, would likewise feature an expanded eight-team playoff, the individuals being the 3 division champs from each conference in addition to one 'wild card' team (the group with the very best win percentage) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a second wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to ten, and a further 2 wild card teams were included to bring the total to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from three divisions in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each division champion gets a playoff bid, the number of wild card teams from each conference dropped from three to 2.
The playoffs broadened again in 2020, including 2 more wild card groups to bring the overall to fourteen playoff teams.
Roger Goodell At the business level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association comprised of and financed by its 32 member groups.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Section 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Profits Code offers an exemption from federal earnings tax for Organization leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether or not administering a pension fund for football gamers), not organized for earnings and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any personal shareholder or person..
In contrast, each individual team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) is subject to tax since they make a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a distraction, stating the impacts of the tax-exempt status of the league office have actually been mischaracterized repeatedly in the last few years ... Every dollar of earnings produced through television rights charges, licensing agreements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other ways is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league workplace and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material difference to our service. As an outcome, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, but it is no longer required to reveal the wages of its executive officers.
The league has actually 3 defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one specified officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ritualistic duties, consisting of granting the conference championship trophy.
The commissioner is chosen by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is chosen by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disagreements between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, negotiating television contracts, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL group, clubs, or utilized people of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the well-being of the League or expert football.
The commissioner can, in case of misbehavior by a celebration related to the league, suspend individuals, hand down a fine of approximately US$ 500,000, cancel contracts with the league, and award or strip groups of draft picks.
In severe cases, the commissioner can provide recommendations to the NFL's Executive Committee approximately and including the cancellation or forfeiture of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also release sanctions up to and consisting of a life time restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has bet on video games or stopped working to alert the league of conspiracies or strategies to bank on or fix games.
The current Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was chosen in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL earnings is from 3 main sources: NFL Ventures (merchandising), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such income similarly among groups, regardless of performance. As of February 2019 [upgrade], each team receives $255 million every year from the league's television agreement, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL teams' financial declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's profits increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of profits came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the tv contract. The remaining one third was from tickets ($42.4 million), corporate sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium marketing ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The biggest Chiefs expense in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other employees. Of the $38 million in running earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, 2 other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the staying $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings model remains in contravention of the typical corporate structure. By redistributing profits to all teams the NFL is ensuring that one group will not dominate the league through excessive incomes.
Roger Noll explained the earnings sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive versus a group playing badly and the biggest cost item, gamer salaries, is topped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Costs Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings shows an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) completed in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play two games versus each of its department competitors (highlighted in light blue), one game versus each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game versus the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Currently, the 14 challengers each group deals with over the 17-game routine season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening game of the season is normally a house video game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
The majority of NFL games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night game typically held at least when a week and Thursday night games occurring on many weeks as well.
NFL games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays until late in the regular season, as federal law restricts professional football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Because high school and college groups usually play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days till the Friday prior to the third Saturday in December. While Saturday games late in the season prevail, the league seldom holds Friday video games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are rarely scheduled for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have actually only been used 3 times because 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday video game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a video game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers testing positive for COVID-19 NFL regular season matches are identified according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four teams play 14 out of their 17 video games against typical opponents or each other–-- two games (house and away) are bet the other three teams in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a department from the AFC as identified by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the group remains in, and 4 years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other games are intraconference games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a team completes initially in its division, it will play 2 other first-place groups in its conference, while a group that ends up last would play two other last-place groups in the conference. The last video game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and determined by previous season's standings.
In overall, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a video game.
Although a team's home and away challengers are understood by the end of the previous year's regular season, the precise dates and times for NFL video games are not determined until much later on because the league has to represent, among other things, the Major League Baseball postseason and regional events that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL video games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were created by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were evaluated by the NFL's scheduling group. After arriving at what they felt was the best schedule out of the group, nearly 50 more possible schedules were developed to attempt to make sure that the chosen schedule would be the best possible one.