National Football League
Professional Football league National Football League Current season, competitors or edition:
No. of teams 32
Country United States [A] Park Avenue New York City NY Tampa Bay Buccaneers Green Bay Packers [B] TV partner(s) United States:
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consisting of 32 groups, divided equally in between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four significant North American professional sports leagues, the greatest expert level of Football worldwide.
eighteen-week regular season ranges from early September to early January, with each group playing seventeen games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, 7 groups from each conference (four division winners and three wild card groups) advance to the playoffs single-elimination competition culminating in the Super Bowl, which is generally held on the very first Sunday in February and is played in between the champs of the NFC and AFC. The league is headquartered in New York City The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Specialist Football Association (APFA) prior to relabeling itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. After initially figuring out champs through end-of-season standings, a playoff system was executed in 1933 that culminated with the NFL Championship Game till 1966. Following an agreement to merge the NFL with the rival Football League (AFL), the Super Bowl was first kept in 1967 to identify a champ in between the very best teams from the two leagues and has remained as the final video game of each NFL season considering that the merger was finished in 1970.
Today, the NFL has the highest average presence (67,591) of any expert sports league worldwide and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is likewise among the greatest club sporting occasions in the world, with the individual games accounting for many of the most watched television programs in American history and all inhabiting the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most viewed U.S. television broadcasts by 2015.
The NFL is the most affluent expert sports league by income and the sports league with the most valuable groups.
Green Bay Packers hold the most combined NFL championships with thirteen, winning 9 titles prior to the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowls afterwards. Given that the development of the Super Bowl, the Pittsburgh Steelers New England Patriots both have one of the most championship titles at 6.
Establishing and history
On August 20, 1920, a conference was held by representatives of the Akron Pros Canton Bulldogs Cleveland Indians Dayton Triangles Jordan Hupmobile car display room in Canton, Ohio This conference resulted in the development of the American Expert Football Conference (APFC), a group who, according to the Canton Night Repository, intended to raise the requirement of professional football in every method possible, to get rid of bidding for players in between competing clubs and to protect cooperation in the formation of schedules.
Another conference was hung on September 17, 1920 with agents from groups from 4 states: Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents Decatur Staleys Racine (Chicago) Cardinals The league was relabelled to the American Expert Football Association (APFA).
The league chosen Jim Thorpe as its very first president, and consisted of fourteen groups (the Buffalo All-Americans Chicago Tigers Columbus Panhandles Detroit Declares joined the league throughout the year). The Massillon Tigers Massillon, Ohio was likewise at the September 17 conference, but did not field a group in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys (now the Chicago Bears) and the Chicago Cardinals (now the Arizona Cardinals), stay in the NFL.
Akron Pros won the very first APFA (NFL) Championship in 1920.
Although the league did not preserve main standings for its 1920 inaugural season and groups played schedules that included non-league challengers, the APFA granted the Akron Pros the champion by virtue of their The first event happened on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–-- 0 at Douglas Park On October 3, 1920, the first complete week of league play took place.
The following season led to the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League (NFL).
, the season ended with the Chicago Bears () and the Portsmouth Spartans) connected for first in the league standings.
At the time, groups were ranked on a single table and the team with the greatest winning percentage (not consisting of ties, which were not counted towards the standings) at the end of the season was declared the champion; the only tiebreaker was that in case of a tie if two teams played twice in a season, the result of the second game determined the title (the source of the 1921 controversy). This technique had actually been utilized because the league's production in 1920, however no circumstance had actually been experienced where two groups were connected for first. The league rapidly figured out that a championship game in between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to choose the league's champion. The groups were originally arranged to play the playoff game, officially a regular-season game that would count towards the routine season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and severe cold required the game to be moved inside your home to Chicago Arena, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Having fun with modified rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the video game 9–-- 0 and therefore won the champion. Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in, to divide into two departments with a national championship to be played in between the division champions.
1934 season also marked the first of twelve seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league. The de facto restriction was rescinded in, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban Major League Baseball The NFL was constantly the largest professional football league in the United States; it nevertheless faced numerous competing professional leagues through the 1930s and 1940s. Competing leagues included at least three different Football Leagues All-America Football Conference (AAFC), on top of numerous local leagues of varying quality. 3 NFL groups trace their histories to these competing leagues, consisting of the Los Angeles Rams (who originated from a 1936 model of the American Football League), the Cleveland Browns San Francisco 49ers (the last two of which came from the AAFC). By the 1950s, the NFL had a reliable monopoly on professional football in the United States; its only competitors in North America was the expert Canadian football circuit, which officially ended up being the Canadian Football League (CFL) in 1958. With Canadian football being a various football code than the American game, the CFL established a specific niche market in Canada and still makes it through as an independent league.
A new expert league, the 4th American Football League (AFL), started to play in 1960. The upstart AFL started to challenge the recognized NFL in popularity, gaining lucrative tv agreements and taking part in a bidding war with the NFL for free agents and draft choices. The 2 leagues revealed a merger on June 8, 1966, to take complete impact in 1970. In the meantime, the leagues would hold a typical draft and national championship. The game, the Super Bowl, was held four times prior to the merger, with the NFL winning Super Bowl I Super Bowl II, and the AFL winning Super Bowl III Super Bowl IV After the league combined, it was reorganized into 2 conferences: the National Football Conference (NFC), including most of the pre-merger NFL groups, and the Football Conference (AFC), consisting of all of the AFL teams as well as 3 pre-merger NFL teams.
Today, the NFL is the most popular sports league in The United States and Canada; much of its growth is attributed to former Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who led the league from 1960 to 1989. Total yearly participation increased from 3 million at the start of his period to 17 million by the end of his period, and 400 million international audiences watched 1989's Super Bowl XXIII The NFL developed NFL Residences in 1963. The league's licensing wing, NFL Properties makes the league billions of dollars annually; Rozelle's tenure likewise marked the production of NFL Charities and a national collaboration with United Method Paul Tagliabue was elected as commissioner to prosper Rozelle; his seventeen-year tenure, which ended in 2006, was marked by big increases in tv contracts and the addition of 4 growth teams, as well as the intro of league initiatives to increase the number of minorities in league and group management roles.
The league's current Commissioner, Roger Goodell, has focused on lowering the variety of unlawful hits and making the sport safer, mainly through fining or suspending gamers who break guidelines.
These actions are amongst lots of the NFL is taking to minimize concussions and enhance gamer security.
Season and playoff advancement
From 1920 to 1934, the NFL did not have a set variety of video games for teams to play, rather setting a minimum. The league mandated a twelve-game routine season for each team beginning in, later reducing this to eleven games in and 10 video games in, primarily due to World War II. After the war ended, the number of video games returned to eleven video games in, and later back to twelve in 1947. The NFL went to a fourteen-game schedule in, which it maintained till changing to the current sixteen-game schedule in In March 2021, the NFL formally adopted a seventeen-game schedule after getting the contract of the National Football League Players Association Having an odd variety of games in the schedule will provide half the teams 9 games as the house group while half the teams have only 8 house games. To decrease the viewed advantage on competition of having more home video games, the extra house video game will be rotated between the 2 conferences each year. This is since playoff berths are assigned at the conference level, so all groups within the conference will have played the very same variety of house games.
The NFL ran in a two-conference system from 1933 to, where the champs of each conference would meet in the NFL National Championship. If two groups tied for the conference lead, they would meet in a one-game playoff to identify the conference champion. In, the NFL expanded from fifteen teams to sixteen groups. Rather of simply evening out the conferences by including the expansion New Orleans Saints to the seven-member Western Conference, the NFL straightened the conferences and split each into two four-team divisions. The four department champions would fulfill in the NFL playoffs, a two-round playoff.
The NFL also operated the Playoff Bowl (formally the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl) from 1960 to 1969. Effectively a third-place video game, pitting the 2 conference runners-up against each other, the league thinks about Playoff Bowls to have been exhibitions rather than playoff games. The league terminated the Playoff Bowl in 1970 due to its understanding as a video game for losers.
Following the addition of the former AFL groups into the NFL in, the NFL split into two conferences with three divisions each. The expanded league, now with twenty-six groups, would likewise include a broadened eight-team playoff, the participants being the three division champions from each conference as well as one 'wild card' team (the team with the best win portion) from each conference. In 1978, the league added a 2nd wild card group from each conference, bringing the overall variety of playoff teams to 10, and a more 2 wild card teams were included to bring the overall to twelve. When the NFL expanded to 32 teams in, the league straightened, altering the department structure from 3 departments in each conference to four divisions in each conference. As each department champion gets a playoff quote, the number of wild card groups from each conference dropped from three to two.
The playoffs expanded again in 2020, adding 2 more wild card groups to bring the total to fourteen playoff groups.
Roger Goodell At the corporate level, the National Football League considers itself a trade association made up of and funded by its 32 member teams.
Up until 2015, the league was an unincorporated nonprofit 501(c)( 6) Area 501(c)( 6) of the Internal Earnings Code supplies an exemption from federal income taxation for Service leagues, chambers of commerce, real-estate boards, boards of trade, or professional football leagues (whether administering a pension fund for football gamers), not arranged for profit and no part of the net incomes of which inures to the benefit of any private investor or individual..
In contrast, each private team (except the non-profit Green Bay Packers) goes through tax because they earn a profit.
The NFL gave up the tax-exempt status in 2015 following public criticism; in a letter to the club owners, Commissioner Roger Goodell identified it a interruption, stating the effects of the tax-exempt status of the league office have been mischaracterized consistently recently ... Every dollar of income produced through television rights charges, licensing arrangements, sponsorships, ticket sales, and other means is earned by the 32 clubs and is taxable there. This will remain the case even when the league office and Management Council file returns as taxable entities and the modification in filing status will make no material distinction to our organization. As a result, the league workplace may owe around US$ 10 million in earnings taxes, however it is no longer required to reveal the salaries of its executive officers.
The league has actually three defined officers: the commissioner, secretary, and treasurer. Each conference has one defined officer, the president, which is basically an honorary position with few powers and mainly ceremonial tasks, consisting of awarding the championship game prize.
The commissioner is elected by the affirmative vote of two-thirds or eighteen (whichever is greater) of the members of the league, while the president of each conference is elected by an affirmative vote of three-fourths or 10 of the conference members.
The commissioner appoints the secretary and treasurer and has broad authority in disputes between clubs, gamers, coaches, and staff members. He is the primary executive officer of the NFL and likewise has authority in employing league workers, negotiating television agreements, disciplining people that own part or all of an NFL team, clubs, or utilized individuals of an NFL club if they have violated league bylaws or dedicated conduct detrimental to the welfare of the League or professional football.
The commissioner can, in the event of misconduct by a celebration connected with the league, suspend people, hand down a fine of as much as US$ 500,000, cancel agreements with the league, and award or strip groups of draft choices.
In extreme cases, the commissioner can provide suggestions to the NFL's Executive Committee up to and consisting of the cancellation or loss of a club's franchise or any other action, he deems essential. The commissioner can also provide sanctions approximately and including a lifetime restriction from the league if an individual linked to the NFL has actually banked on games or failed to alert the league of conspiracies or plans to bank on or fix games.
The present Commissioner of the National Football League is Roger Goodell, who was elected in 2006 after Paul Tagliabue, the previous commissioner, retired.
NFL profits is from three primary sources: NFL Ventures (retailing), NFL Enterprises (NFL Network NFL Sunday Ticket, which the league controls), and the tv agreement. The league distributes such earnings equally among groups, despite efficiency. Since February 2019 [upgrade], each group gets $255 million yearly from the league's television contract, up 150% from $99.9 million in 2010.
A lot of NFL groups' monetary declarations are secret.
The Kansas City Star acquired the Kansas City Chiefs' tax returns for 2008–-- 2010. According to the Star, the group's revenue increased from $231 million in 2008 to $302 million in 2010. In 2010, two thirds of income came from the league: $99.8 million from NFL Ventures ($55.3 million) and NFL Enterprises ($44.6 million), and the $99.9 million share of the television contract. The remaining one 3rd was from tickets ($42.4 million), business sponsorships ($6.6 million), food sales ($5 million), parking passes ($4.7 million), in-stadium advertising ($3.7 million), radio contract ($2.7 million), and various sources.
The largest Chiefs expenditure in 2010 was $148 million for players, coaches, and other workers. Of the $38 million in operating earnings, Clark Lamar Jr.
, two other kids, and widow of previous team owner Lamar Hunt divided $17.6 million, and reinvested the remaining $20 million into the team.
According to economic expert Richard D. Wolff, the NFL's earnings design is in breach of the typical business structure. By rearranging profits to all teams the NFL is making sure that one team will not dominate the league through extreme profits.
Roger Noll described the profits sharing as the league's crucial structural weakness, nevertheless, as there is no disincentive against a group playing terribly and the biggest expense product, gamer wages, is capped.
AFC East AFC North AFC South AFC West Bills Steelers Titans Chiefs Dolphins Ravens Colts Raiders Patriots Browns Texans Chargers Jets Bengals Jaguars Broncos NFC East NFC North NFC South NFC West Washington Packers Saints Seahawks Giants Bears Buccaneers Rams Cowboys Vikings Panthers Cardinals Eagles Lions Falcons 49ers This chart of the 2020 season standings displays an application of the NFL scheduling formula. The Buccaneers in 2020 (highlighted in green) ended up in 2nd place in the NFC South in 2021, the Buccaneers will play 2 video games against each of its department rivals (highlighted in light blue), one video game against each group in the NFC East AFC East (highlighted in yellow), one video game each versus the second-place finishers in the NFC North NFC West (highlighted in orange) and one video game against the group who ended up second in the AFC South (highlighted in pink).
Presently, the 14 challengers each team faces over the 17-game regular season schedule are set utilizing a pre-determined formula:
The league runs an 18-week, 272-game routine season. Considering that 2021, the season has started the week after Labor Day (the very first Monday in September) and concluded the week after New Year.
The opening video game of the season is usually a home game on a Thursday for the league's protecting champ.
A lot of NFL video games are played on Sundays, with a Monday night video game generally held a minimum of when a week and Thursday night games taking place on a lot of weeks also.
NFL video games are not typically played on Fridays or Saturdays till late in the regular season, as federal law forbids expert football leagues from taking on college or high school football. Since high school and college teams generally play video games on Friday and Saturday, respectively, the NFL can not hold games on those days until the Friday before the third Saturday in December. While Saturday video games late in the season are common, the league seldom holds Friday games, the most recent one being on Christmas Day in 2020.
NFL games are seldom set up for Tuesday or Wednesday, and those days have just been utilized 3 times considering that 1948: in 2010, when a Sunday game was rescheduled to Tuesday due to a blizzard, in 2012, when the Kickoff video game was moved from Thursday to Wednesday to prevent dispute with the Democratic National Convention and in 2020, when a game was held off from Sunday to Tuesday due to gamers evaluating favorable for COVID-19 NFL routine season matchups are figured out according to a scheduling formula. Within a division, all four groups play 14 out of their 17 video games versus typical opponents or each other–-- two video games (house and away) are played against the other 3 groups in the division, while one video game is held versus all the members of a division from the NFC and a division from the AFC as determined by a turning cycle (3 years for the conference the team is in, and four years in the conference they are not in). 2 of the other video games are intraconference video games, identified by the standings of the previous year –-- for example, if a group finishes first in its department, it will play two other first-place groups in its conference, while a team that ends up last would play 2 other last-place teams in the conference. The final game is an inter-conference based upon a rotating cycle and identified by previous season's standings.
In total, each group plays 17 games and has one bye week, where it does not play a game.
Although a group's house and away challengers are known by the end of the previous year's regular season, the specific dates and times for NFL video games are not identified up until much later due to the fact that the league needs to account for, to name a few things, the Big league Baseball postseason and local events that could position a scheduling conflict with NFL games. During the 2010 season, over 500,000 possible schedules were produced by computers, 5,000 of which were thought about playable schedules and were examined by the NFL's scheduling team. After getting to what they felt was the very best schedule out of the group, almost 50 more prospective schedules were developed to try to guarantee that the chosen schedule would be the very best possible one.